U ovom radu obrađena je kulturna, povijesna, obrazovna, umjetnička i gospodarska djelatnost pavlina u Križevcima u vremenu od 1667. do 1786. godine. Za dolazak pavlina u Križevce najzaslužniji je tadašnji protonotar Hrvatskog kraljevstva Ivan Zakmardi Dijankovečki, koji je bio veliki pavlinski dobrotvor. Budući da Zakmardi nije imao potomke, gotovo sve što je imao i posjedovao ostavi je križevačkim pavlinima, tako da su bili materijalno osigurani za svoju glavnu djelatnost, zbog koje ih je i Zakmardi u Križevce i doveo, a to je osnutak škole (gimnazije) u kojoj će se obrazovati križevačka, ali i vlaška (pravoslavna) mladež.
Pavlini u križevački Donji grad službeno ulaze u travnju 1667. godine, kada im je to odobrio zagrebački biskup Petar Petretić. Samostan je nastao na mjestu gdje je potpukovnik Nikola Makar prodao pavlinima zemljište s kućom, a izgradnja je počela za vrijeme priora Stjepana Fištrovića 1699. godine, a završena je za vrijeme priora Stjepana Demšića mlađeg 1721. godine, kada je zaokružen cjelokupni samostanski kompleks, koji u pravom smislu riječi je promijenio vizuru Donje grada, oko kojega se formirao trg i glavna ulica, koja i danas prolazi kroz strogi centar Križevaca. Pavlinska ostavština u aspektu inventara nije prebogata. Najvjerojatnije je veći dio inventara završio u okolnim župama, ali neki smatraju da je dosta toga odvezeno i u Mađarsku nakon ukinuća reda 1786. godine.
U radu je obrađen i odnos pavlina s plemićima na primjeru posjeda u Rakovcu, Dropčevcu i Preseki. Isto tako može se vidjeti kakve su odnose pavlini gajili i s grkokatolicima, ali i ostalim crkvenim institucijama. Što se tiče umjetničkog aspekta, zaslugom pavlina Križevci danas posjeduju i vrijedna djela baroknih slikara Gabrijela Tallera i Ivana Krstitelja Ranger, dok je ovdje boravio i jedan od najpoznatijih pavlinskih kipara Aleksije Königer. Velika zasluga pavlina, zasigurno je i nastanak današnje crkve Majke Božje Žalosne u Koruškoj, koju je opjevao Nikola Benger u svojem djelu Kraljica mučenika.
Budući da su križevački pavlini posjedovali brojne posjede utjecali su i na ekonomsku sliku u Križevcima, a o tome govori podataka da je već 1687. godine Gradsko poglavarstvo donijelo odluku kako se zabranjuje svima da posluju s pavlinima odnosno da im prodaju posjede i imanja. Međutim, zabrana je ubrzo ukinuta. Uz sve to, ipak najveća je pavlinska ostavština školstvo. Naime, već 1675. godine diplomom kralja Leopolda I. službeno s radom kreće pavlinska gimnazija, iz koje je kasnije nastala i opća pučka, pa narodna škola, a kojoj su na čelu bili i u njoj predavali pavlini sve do 1822. godine kada je umro nekadašnji redovnik Petar Švagelj, a koji je bio ravnatelj Narodne škole u Križevcima. Pavlinski samostan u Križevcima
djelovao je i kao vjerodostojno mjesto, gdje su građani mogli pohranjivati svoje vrijednosti, ali i mjesto gdje su ljudi mogli podići zajam ili osnovati legat.
Na kraju, rad donosi biografiju 101 pavlina koji su boravili u križevačkom samostanu kao i one koji su rođeni na području Križevaca.
|Abstract (english)|| |
Paulines or the Order of Saint Paul the First Hermit is a church order that originated in southern Hungary at the beginning of the 13th century, and very soon the first Paulines appear on Croatian territories (Remete 1240 or 1247, Dubica 1244).The Order was officially recognized in 1308 by the Bull Quisecularia of Pope Clement V and slowly moved from a hermit to a monastic order. Most of the Pauline monasteries on the Croatian territory were erected during the 14th century, and the Pauline monastery in Križevci, which is the subject of this paper, emerged in the last wave of the Pauline spread after the end of the Ottoman danger. Most responsible for the establishment of the Pauline monastery of St. Anne in Križevci was the prothonotary of the Croatian kingdom Ivan Zakmardi Dijankovečki, who in some way wanted to help the development his city after the end of the Ottoman danger and move of the frontier further to the east. Since there was a military garrison in the Lower Town of Križevci, Zakmardi decided to build a church and a monastery in this area in order to have more holy masses and sacred sacraments in the town. Since the Paulines proved to be excellent clerics, and they had the right to vote in the Croatian and Hungarian Parliament, Zakmardi chose them, and with the General of the Order Pavle Ivanović, he arranged for the realization of his intent. Ivanovic determined that all the details will be agreed by the General Vicar Martin Borković, who together with Zakmardi before the judge of the Lower Town Ivan Prosenjak and twelve city deputies concluded a charter contract in which he donates numerous properties to the Paulines, but there is also a condition to establish a school for both domestic and Valach children. After resolving a dispute with the Franciscans who had their monastery in the Upper Town, Zagreb bishop Petar Petretić issued an official permit to Paulines for entering the Lower Town and beginning their activities on 20th of April 1667. Although Zakmardi left a rich bequest to the Paulines, the Paulines continue to acquire property in the area of Križevci, but also in the wider surroundings. In fact, various possessions and valuables, which were needed primarily for the functioning of the school, came from various foundations, legacies and loans, as well as to various donors.
On the example of the properties in Rakovec, Dropčevac and Preseki, this paper presents the relations between the Paulines and various noble families such as Zrinski, Frankopani, Batthynáy, Patačići, Erdödy, but also relations with the Zagreb Kaptol and Greek Catholics. The Pauline Monastery in Križevci is unique because it is the only Pauline monastery built inside of a city fortress and as such it has influenced the urban appearance of the old city core, which is still visible today. The construction of the masonry building was started in 1699 by
Stjepan Fištrović, and the monastery obtained its final form in 1721 at the time of the reign of Stjepan Demšić Junior when the belfry was raised. Stylish, artistic and architectural direction in which the monastery of St. Anne in Križevci was created borders with the Baroque period. The monastery was foreseen for the work of 12 monks, in 37 rooms, but in the 1770 census we can see that there could be up to 15 monks in the monastery. As far as the monastery inventory is concerned, not a lot has survived. After the cessation of order in 1786, the monastery moved to the parish of the Holy Cross, and part of the monastery was purchased by the city Magistrat. Also, some believe that part of the inventory was shipped to Hungary. Part of the inventory is available today in the church and parish of St. Anne, Diocesan Museum in Zagreb, the City Museum of Križevci and in the future Bjelovar-Križevci Bishopric Museum.
As for the artist, the Franciscan monastery was graced by the works of Gabriel Taller, John the Baptist Ranger, Alexius Königer and others. Under the influence of Paulines in 1726 the church of Our Lady of Sorrows was erected in Koruška and was sung about by the Pauline from Križevci Nikola Benger in his work Kraljica mučenik (Queen of Martyrs). The Pauline Lower Grammar School in Križevci is one of the most important institutions that was established in Križevci up to that time, and its activities were specially approved by King Leopold I. The Grammar School followed, like other Pauline high schools, the Jesuit Ratio studiorum, and according to that categorization was a lower grammar school with four classes of parva, principia, grammatica and syntaxa. Later, a general folk and later a folk and trivial school developed from the Pauline Grammar School.
The Pauline Monastery in Križevci also acted as a locus credibilis or credible place where private persons could store their records and valuables, which was done both by the nobles and the poor, as well as the army and other clergy. At the end, the paper deals with the biographies of 101 Pauline who were either born in Križevci or acted in the Pauline monastery of St. Anne in Križevci.
From all this it is evident that during the 120 years of its existence the Pauline monastery in Križevci left an inescapable mark in the formation of the cultural, artistic, educational and economic history of the town of Križevci.