|Sažetak rada (hrvatski)|| |
Sustav stjecanja biskupskih časti zrcalo je kompleksnih odnosa srednjovjekovnih središta moći. Papa, svjetovni vladari i kanoničke zajednice su, naime, sudjelovanjem u izboru biskupa dodatno
potvrđivali svoj autoritet u duhovnome imaginariju srednjovjekovnoga društva. Upravo zato Papinska kurija u jeku centralizacije crkvenoga života zapadnoga kršćanstva tijekom
13. stoljeća nastoji još kvalitetnije regulirati to osjetljivo kanonsko pitanje. Lokalna tradicija Ugarsko-Hrvatskoga Kraljevstva u okvirima koje dominira patronat kralja i izborno pravo kaptola, usprkos kurijalnim reformama i dalje je glavna silnica o kojoj ovise sudbine biskupskih kandidata. U tom kontekstu ovaj rad razmatra slučaj iz 60-ih godina 13. stoljeća kada su čak tri kandidata pokušala steći katedru zagrebačkoga biskupa. Premda su dva kandidata imala
podršku kralja i katedralnoga kaptola, na kraju je 1263. godine biskupom imenovan papin kandidat Timotej. Rad analizira okolnosti Timotejeva stjecanja biskupske časti u okvirima širih trendova dominantnih u odnosima Kurije, kralja i Zagrebačkoga kaptola tijekom 13. stoljeća. Osobit je naglasak stavljen na razmatranje modela primjene papina i kraljeva autoriteta te na diplomatsku kampanju koju je Kurija poduzela kako bi, unatoč protivljenju kralja i kaptola, svom kandidatu ipak osigurala ulazak u posjed biskupske časti.
|Sažetak rada (engleski)|| |
By participating in the procedure of the episcopal elections, the Pope, secular rulers and canon communities not only demonstrated their authority in the process of controlling clerical careers, but also conﬁrmed their inﬂuence on ecclesiastical life in general. Thus,
it is no wonder that the investiture of bishop could lead to a conﬂict of authorities. In this context, an interesting case from the 1260s, when three candidates were trying to gain the vacant post of Zagreb bishop, is analysed. King Bela IV wanted to promote his vicechancellor Farcasius to the episcopal see – the King’s candidate was even signing the royal charters as “electus Zagrabiensis” in 1262/63. The Pope, however, never issued the bull of appointment to this cleric. The second candidate was Stephen, the provost of the
Pozsony chapter and the nephew of Cardinal-bishop Stephen Báncsa. He was elected by the assembly of the Zagreb chapter canons, but due to the defectus aetatis Papal Curia rejected his candidacy. Instead, the Pope’s chaplain Timothy was appointed bishop in
1263. The crucial role in this promotion was played by Cardinal Stephen Báncsa, whose relations with the King were far from ideal. For Papal Curia, the appointment of the new Zagreb bishop independently of the local centres of power meant one step further towards the effective application of the papal authority. The involvement of a cardinal-bishop in the process of episcopal election and, consequently, the distribution of Timothy’s prebends
to members of cardinal’s household, afﬁrmed the corporative structure of the Papal Curia in which cardinals represented its ﬁrmest pillars. Timothy’s appointment, however, was followed by the opposition of both, the King and the Zagreb chapter. They saw episcopal promotion of a cleric belonging to a Curial milieu as papal violation of traditionally established relations between the King and ecclesiastical elite. The King exercised enormous authority over the Church in his Realm and regularly managed to appoint clerics
in royal service to higher ecclesiastical posts. But in 1260’s political crisis caused by the war between Bela IV and his son Stephen broke out. The political circumstances required most of the King’s attention, preventing him from imposing full royal authority in promoting
a new bishop of Zagreb. On the other hand, the participation of Zagreb canons in the process of episcopal appointments and their contacts with the royal house were a means for securing the chapter’s power on the local level. That is why the papal act of independent appointment was perceived as a threat both to chapter’s position in the framework of the canon law and to the standard system of ecclesiastical promotions. The opposition to a papal candidate prevented Timothy from entering his diocese until after mid 1266. In order to resolve the conﬂict Papal curia initiated a “diplomatic” campaign – after ﬁrst papal emissaries were rejected by canons, the Curia engaged Franciscan friar Gvalterius
(Englishman Walter) to be vicar in Zagreb bishopric. In the meantime the royal house responded by sending its own emissaries to the Curia, but their campaign against Timothy failed. However, papal efforts to promote a curial candidate came to an effect only after
the conﬂict between the King and his son was resolved in 1266. The case of Timothy’s episcopal appointment indicates two trends – the papal continual actions towards the implementation of the “plenitude of power” concept and the royal attempts to secure the patronage over the Church. Even though the Papal Curia managed to appoint its own candidate in Timothy’s case, career-patterns of ambitious clerics continued to depend heavily on the Royal court. With that in mind, it is safe to say that Timothy’s episcopal appointment was not only an isolated example of disturbances in the relations between
the Pope and the King, but also an announcement of trends which will often determine the nature of relations between the Church and the Hungarian-Croatian royal house in the late medieval and early modern period.